Predictive Characteristics

A pre-reader may struggle with:

  • retaining alphabetic writing instruction
  • retaining alphabetic letter knowledge (sounds)
  • phonemic awareness tasks
  • phonics instruction
  • corresponding letters and sounds

A reader may struggle with:

  • reading accurately and fluently
  • decoding words
  • spelling words that have been taught or learned
  • expressing thoughts in writing
  • comprehending things read silently

Phonological Processing Deficits:

  • delayed speech, early articulation errors
  • confusion of similar sounds /b/ /p/ /f/ /v/
  • poor rhyming skills
  • inability to master segmenting
  • difficulty identifying initial, medial, and final sounds in words

Orthographic Processing:

  • difficulty copying from the board or book
  • difficulty learning how to make letter forms
  • difficulty remembering high frequency words
  • confusion of similar looking letters and words
  • rules of English spelling difficult to master

Automaticity and Fluency:

  • difficulty sustaining attention to letter symbols and sounds
  • difficulty retrieving verbal labels
  • difficulty articulating words rapidly
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